Assignment 2-Exercise 2 Engagement
Gillian Morris Student No. 511388
Exercise 2 Engagement-Professional Life (All Areas of Practice)
Research File- Ongoing Completion including use of online blog weaveprint.com People and organisations included to engage with, to increasingly seek out new options for engagement, to extend links and to expand upon connections.
Aim- To join a range of membership organisations, to continue to learn, develop, to network, to exhibit, to access information concerning funding including grants and sponsorships, residences, to research widely to optimise opportunities which exist to promote myself, to make links and connections with people, places, and resources to aid the continuing development of my creative practice.
Membership Organisations for Exhibitions, Networking, Promotion, Learning, Development of Creative Practice within the Current Contemporary Art Field
Visual Arts Scotland is a leading platform for national and international contemporary fine and applied artists. Originally an organisation for women artists, the society since the 1980s has championed craft makers, designers and applied arts practitioners. Their relationship with contemporary fine art practice is at the heart of Visual Arts Scotland’s mission today. Their annual exhibition offers the opportunity for emerging and established practitioners to showcase new and unseen work and engage with a wider public: to generate debate, to test out and exhibit challenging and ambitious ideas – within the context of Scottish and international culture. Visual Arts boast a vibrant, active, and participatory membership of over 700 practising artists, for whom they provide a platform – primarily for the showing and developing of new work. Members and non-members alike are welcome to submit work for selection at their prestigious annual exhibitions, to show alongside invited artists and emerging talent, at the imposing Academy building on the Mound in Edinburgh. I hope to submit work for selection and exhibition next year.
Membership of Contemporary Applied Arts (CAA) offer rolling programmes of skilfully curated temporary exhibitions. A range of thoughtful, well curated exhibitions, including thematic, solo and group shows, keep CAA in the public eye and attract visitors to the gallery. Given their online presence, capacity to launch regular high-profile exhibitions and to promote contemporary art and artists with a significant following membership is planned as such an organisation can help to support me to further develop my creative practice, profile, and networking. CAA mount exhibitions to promote the work of their makers and to spotlight individuals and their work or specific disciplines. CAA often use these exhibitions to celebrate changes of direction in their makers’ artistic practice and to support the experimental. They endeavour to achieve an appropriate balance between the ‘commercial’ and the ‘artistic’; and produce ground-breaking exhibitions of work that are daring and thought-provoking. There are curated displays which highlight CAA’s inter-disciplinary approach and extend their reputation as a premier venue for seeing new and exciting contemporary craft of the very highest quality. https://www.caa.org.uk/
The 62 Group promotes a vibrant, innovative, and creatively challenging textile group which will help to promote continuing creative development within the arena of contemporary weave and print. Through joining such a textile group for artists and run by artists expectations will be high including the requirement to exhibit regularly as a key prerequisite to membership. Through the capacity to liaise with so many well established, informed, and successful contemporary textile artists my own creative practice will continue to be stimulated and thrive. What particularly impressed me with the 62 Group was their unrelenting standards. Members know that their work will be subjected to appraisal by a panel of their fellow members before it is accepted into any 62 Group exhibitions. With the groups continuing programme of annual exhibitions, and its established international reputation for professionalism, quality of work and strength of purpose my own creative practice can only improve and expand with such academic and creative rigour.
Membership of the edge textile artists Scotland group assures joining a group dedicated to promoting excellence in contemporary textile art in Scotland with the expectation of continuous development within creative practice. Keeping aspirational as well as inspirational is at the core of the Edge philosophy and that is achieved by following the constitutional premise that they are bound to a selection process both to join the group and to exhibit work. https://edge-textileartists-scotland.com/ Again, like the 62 Group I have been drawn towards the academic and creative rigour to maintain standards throughout their regular exhibition programme with their ongoing creative processes, learning and development opportunities. Through such membership there will be many options to share and exchange roles and responsibilities which will help to extend my creative practice within the contemporary field, to keep abreast of textile art in Scotland.
Local Artists- Continuing Contact with the Named Textile Artists for Mentorship, Support, Engagement and Sharing Knowledge, Information and Experience, Extended Learning through Ongoing Workshops and Masterclasses
Molly Bullick investigates stitch resist in a more contemporary way using natural dyes such as Indigo as well as the conventional chemical dyes. She also incorporates paper as in Joomchi, with stitch and dye which she uses in wall hung work and the book format. I have attended many of her workshops and maintain contact through a range of forums. https://edge-textileartists-scotland.com/edge-artists/molly-bullick/
Joanna Kinnersly-Taylor is a printed textile artist and designer, and works from her studio in Glasgow, Scotland. Her practice embraces a wide range of printed fabrics, from architectural commissions — public and domestic — to one-off works for galleries; she also produces three ranges of domestic linens, including tea towels and table linen. Creating visual rhythms that evoke a sense of recognition, she seeks to capture a particular moment, atmosphere, or environment. http://www.joannakinnerslytaylor.com/ I have known Joanna for many years, and she continues to offer me support within a mentoring role through regular remote and face to face contact which has been invaluable for my ongoing development as a textile artist.
Textiles are at the core of Caroline’s practice, providing the means and materials to process and articulate ideas, but often also acting as the reference point in relation to content. The historical, social, and cultural associations of textiles, their significance in relation to touch and their ability to trigger memory become central to ideas. Imprinting, erasing, and reworking, stitching, folding, and unfolding become defining characteristics. https://www.62group.org.uk/artist/caroline-bartlett/
I have attended many of the exhibitions and shows in which Caroline Bartlett has been involved with as well as engaged in workshops led by her, so I have and continue to learn from her approach to textiles and her use of creative processes and techniques. I follow her new work with interest and keep abreast of her ongoing relationship with textiles.
Drawn to textile art from a young age, Louise completed her art foundation on the Isle of Man, before moving onto Middlesex University. During a degree in Constructed Textiles, she was introduced to weaving, tapestry and knit. Of these the freedom of expression and techniques in tapestry offered the greatest appeal. Graduating with 1st class Hons, Louise moved on to a master’s in applied art at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland. Increasingly over the years Louise has taught tapestry weaving and increasingly developed this art form within the contemporary art field. I have known Louise for many years as a local artist who regularly offered workshops which I continue to attend given her ongoing support and sharing of knowledge with her understanding of skills and technique.
International Artists – See online blog entry https://weaveprint.com/2021/07/04/international-contemporary-textile-artists-researching-meaningful-narratives-in-textiles/
Sonia Navarro is one of the best-known textile artists in Spain. From Murcia she has exhibited widely including the Verónicas Room in Murcia and she has used such opportunities to communicate. Sonia Navarro has been vocal through her art, of being responsible for breaking this silence with her compositions, her patterns, her stitches, and her reflection on gender, on the rural environment and on a craft in which identity resides. The challenge has not been easy, because of the desacralized conventual church which offers “a space that if you neglect dominates you”, as pointed out by the curators of related exhibitions, Boundaries, Road, Memorial. María de Corral and Lorena Martínez de Corral,two other women who have accompanied the artist in this conquest of exhibiting within the Veronicas Room, of using the monumental space to espouse what they want to say. Sonia Navarro stated “Such exhibitions cannot be prepared in a few months, not even in a few years; it is the result of a whole trajectory, of living by and for art.
The artists exhibition works – in which the artist dresses the space and establishes a dialogue with the architecture of a room that is the ‘flagship’ of the exhibition spaces of Murcia – are inspired by the household work of women in the rural environment and value artisan work because, as the artist maintains, “a country without craftsmanship is a country without identity”. They are the fruit of twenty years of working in the same direction, which is none other than “that of my truth, of what I wanted to tell, regardless of fashions; I’ve always done what I needed to do,” explains Navarro, who highlights the work with Blanca’s Esparto de Mujeres, without which it would have been impossible to make some of the pieces. Esparto also symbolizes respect and care for the land.
Considering the impossibility of movement and the housework traditionally performed by women as the driving force of her art, the materials she uses are thread, needles, fabrics, and anything related to sewing. The latest works have entailed a process in which the city and freedom have a strong presence, expressed through media such as sculpture, installation, photography, and drawing. She creates pieces that challenge and confront the mechanisms and institutions of power, especially those that have helped to shape the historical gender hierarchy, exploring the female reality in the rural world, and reflecting on the constant struggle of women and established patterns.
Independent designer/makers studios – See https://www.waspsstudios.org.uk/ Also see online blog entry https://weaveprint.com/2021/07/05/wasps-currently-house-over-900-professional-artists-makers-and-creative-industries-organisations-at-20-different-sites-across-scotland-including-glasgow/ Wasps- As Scotland’s studio specialists, have been providing artists, makers & creators/creatives with studio spaces and places to work for over 40 years. They have and continue to operate and manage twenty purpose-led buildings fit for purpose spaces across the country, providing a canvas for creativity for almost 1,000 creative practitioners & businesses. Such artist communities offer the opportunity for extensive support, networking, further development, funding, grants, sponsorships, learning, promotion, selling, exhibitions, and open studios.
Liz Douglas. Her work reflects her dialogue with the natural world and the element of unpredictability that exists. She also has a wish to explore these contradictions, using the visible and invisible element in the landscape as metaphor. The research processes she uses involves collaborating with scientists and environmentalists which deepens her knowledge of the natural world, and its contradictions. She investigates microscopic elements using a scanning electron microscope to reveal structures and forms from graptolite fossils, alpine plants, tree and plant pollen material. “Her quietly sumptuous canvasses show an awareness of the interconnectedness of natural and social processes. The success of her abstract aesthetics lies in communicating this to the viewer, palpably and imaginatively.” Ruth Pelzer-Montada (2008). I am influenced by the experimental nature of her work, her use of technique and research processes, of her ‘work-in-progress’ mentality and exploration of the boundaries between the handmade and machine made. I am also drawn to her love of nature, of her interest in the ideas of the ‘visible and invisible’, and ‘macro and micro’ which I like myself. Liz Douglas is a Professional Member of the Society of Scottish Artists, and graduate of Edinburgh College of Art. Liz Douglas has been using lasercutting as an innovative drawing tool, using scanned electron microscopic images – the ‘invisible structures’ of diatoms from Whitlaw Mosses research project. Liz Douglas was one of six artists and designers from the Scottish Borders and Dumfries and Galloway to have the opportunity to expand her ideas, explore technology and develop innovative work through a residency at Heriot Watt University School of Textiles and Design. The initiative was funded through Creative Scotland’s ‘Creative Futures’ programme and coordinated by the Creative Arts Business Network.
Paul Furneaux. The artist has spent four years in Japan, studying Japanese and traditional woodblock techniques, finding a new way of self-expression. The technique involves printing watercolour onto handmade Japanese paper, using a hand-held disc called a baren. He readily shares his techniques, materials, and processes with others. I aim to undertake a series of workshops with him once they are up and running again as I want to know more about such techniques and hope to integrate them within my own creative practice using a range of materials. I enjoy watercolours, printmaking, and the Japanese aesthetic. I relate to his creative processes to re-create how he feels, the initial impulse that he must make and to create. He catches moments of experiencing, of the interplay of light and shadow, or the way one interlocking shape works with another. The reduced imagery also helps him to go deeper into the technique and experiment with ways of printing, like combining woodblock with digital inkjet. I follow him on social media, his website and through his exhibitions.
Galleries for Exhibitions, Residences, Library and Research Centre, Vacancies, Internships, Workshops, Media Coverage and Networking Opportunities.
The Lighthouse, Scotland’s Centre for Design and Architecture, is a visitor centre, exhibition space and events venue situated in the heart of Glasgow, just off the Style Mile. The Lighthouse acts as a beacon for the creative industries in Scotland and promotes design and architecture through a vibrant programme of exhibitions, workshops, and events.
CCA: Centre for Contemporary Arts is Glasgow’s hub for the arts. They host a year-round programme of exhibitions, events, films, music, literature, workshops, festivals, and performances. The overall ethos is to support and work with artists, to commission new projects and present them to the widest possible audience. CCA runs an open-source programming policy, where they give their venue space to artists and organisations to present their own public events and exhibitions.
Dundee Contemporary Arts (DCA) is an internationally renowned centre for contemporary art that enables audiences, artists, and participants to see, experience and create. With two large-scale gallery spaces, a busy print studio, an award-winning learning programme, and a packed programme of events, workshops, classes, and activities aimed at all ages and abilities, DCA is one of the most successful arts organisations in the UK.
Funding Opportunities, Conferences, Maker Training, Exhibitions, Awards & Competitions, Employment Options- Jobs & Residences, Volunteering/Internships, & Contemporary Craft Weeks
Continuing engagement with Craft Scotland as the national development agency supporting makers and promoting craft which is a registered charity supported by Creative Scotland.
Craft Scotland support financially and champion a diverse range of high-quality contemporary craft. They help people learn about, appreciate, and buy craft, promoting the contribution of craft to Scotland’s cultural, economic, and social well-being. Through their exhibitions and events programmes, digital platforms, and strategic partnerships, they create opportunities for makers to develop their creative and business practice, and to exhibit and sell work in Scotland and beyond. Their website provides a platform for craft enthusiasts to engage and learn about Scottish-based makers and craft destinations. Thousands of people visit craftscotland.org every month to find out more about craft, see what exhibitions, events and workshops are on in their area, and commission craft directly from the makers. They continue to expand new ways to promote makers who sell online and improve their website functionality which includes the Craft Journal, What’s On and Maker Community listing, their Craft Directory and newsletters. This makes it easier for makers to promote their activities, news, and opportunities to a much wider audience. Ongoing subscription to the weekly Craft Scotland bulletin to keep updated on all relevant funding opportunities including development support, available grants for studios and equipment, proposals for the completion of creative work and specific annual projects for exhibitions and art shows, sponsorships for further training and development.
Craft Scotland support makers and promote Scottish contemporary craft with their varied programme of work, events, and exhibitions throughout the year. Through their retail shows, makers can raise the profile of craft in Scotland and develop new audiences for their work by selling direct to customers. Craft Scotland exhibitions and trade shows create opportunities for makers to present and sell their work to commercial contacts. Additionally, they support makers to develop a sustainable creative and business practice with their online and offline maker training at all levels. They engage with the wider community through their outreach programme by building partnerships with organisations that can help artists access new audiences. https://www.craftscotland.org/
Ongoing Art Festivals to Attend with Continuing Use of Studio and Exhibition Space-Open Studios, Artists & Makers Summer Markets, Wasps Studios, Hanson Street, Glasgow
Wasps currently house over 900 professional artists, makers, and creative industries organisations at 20 different sites across Scotland including Glasgow. All artists can be readily located and contacted through expansive online profiles. Many of my favourite artists are housed within the Wasps studio complexes as it is a significant organisation for supporting artists in Scotland.
Wasps mission is to provide space and support activities in which creators can prosper. Wasps vision is to be an inspirational home for creative practice. Through activities and advocacy, they continue to deliver affordable spaces in which the broad artistic community can realise and share its talent and skills. Wasps believe that art can inspire, entertain, educate, and transform people’s lives. Artists and arts charities have the unique talent and ability to create great art that can do this however many survive on low incomes and struggle to make ends meet. So, Wasps was set up to provide good quality, affordable studio space to enable artists and creative organisations to carry out their work. To date Wasps have raised c.£32 million to invest in buildings for arts use across Scotland. Wasps now own approximately two thirds of their property portfolio, securing permanent studios for 400 artists. https://www.waspsstudios.org.uk/
Aim- Permanent Wasps Tenant/Own Studio Space, Hanson Street Studios To increasingly be part of their community of almost 1,000 artists and creatives in their 20 buildings across Scotland. To have extensive exhibiting and selling opportunities through their Arts & Enterprise Programme including Exhibitions – over 50% of artists exhibited in their gallery programmes are tenants, Makers Markets, South Block Shop, Open Studios, Art Fairs, ability to join ‘our Own Art scheme’, support and expertise from Wasps’ staff team, promotion on the Wasps website with an artist profile and the increased capacity to put on my own art shows. https://www.waspsstudios.org.uk/spaces/artist-space/hanson-street-studios/
The Scottish Gallery was originally established in South St. David Street, Edinburgh by Aitken Dott in 1842 as “Gilders, Framers, and Artists’ Colourmen”, the firm, as it does today, also exhibited and sold work by the leading Scottish artists of the day. As all areas of the business grew, larger premises were found in Castle Street in 1860 and a new dedicated gallery space was opened in 1897 as “The Scottish Gallery”. The gallery has been situated on Dundas Street since 1992 and its focus is on the promotion of contemporary art including textiles. https://scottish-gallery.co.uk/
A free, public space for culture in the heart of Edinburgh, the Fruitmarket provides inspiration and opportunity for artists and audiences. They programme, develop and present world-class exhibitions, commissions, publications, performances, events, and engagement activities, opening up the artistic process. Creativity makes space for meaning, and they create a welcoming space for people to think with contemporary art and culture in ways that are helpful to them – for free. https://www.fruitmarket.co.uk/about-us/
Competitions and Scholarships to apply for
Cordis Prize for Tapestry
This is the world’s biggest award for tapestry. Rewarding ambition in contemporary weaving. The aim of the prize is to reward ambitious, innovative, and skilled use of tapestry weaving techniques. Contemporary tapestry artists and previous Cordis Prize winners continue to move this art form forwards. The prize hopes to attract national and international entries from established artists working in the field of contemporary tapestry. Tapestry works need to be predominantly woven which reference traditional Gobelin techniques but need not be wholly constructed using this method. Works need not necessarily be two dimensional or wall hung, and it is hoped to encourage ambitious and non-conventional applications of tapestry weaving. http://thetapestryprize.org/project/2021cordisprize/
The Janome Fine Art Textiles Award
The Janome Fine Art Textiles Award is an international juried exhibition open to all amateur and practising artists using textiles, cloth, and thread as their primary medium. The award recognises the creative talents and skills of a broad community of high-calibre textile artists producing gallery-quality high art. The winner receives a £5,000 prize. An award for Innovative Use of Textiles, sponsored by Her Quiet Materials, will also be awarded for a work that clearly demonstrates a particularly complex and/or powerful approach to the use of textiles, with a prize of £500. Full information about The Janome Fine Art Textiles Award 2021 can be found on The Festival of Quilts website at: www.thefestivalofquilts.co.uk/the-fine-art-textiles-award/
The International Textile Art Biennial
Artists from over the world are invited to apply for this prestigious event. This Biennial offers textile artists a unique opportunity to exhibit – it also provides them with an exceptional opportunity to reach new audiences and to network with established collectors and gallery owners. The ITB is a major exhibition which targets an enthusiastic and art-loving public. This edition will be supported by an integrated press and media campaign focusing on broadening contacts with the buying public and increasing foreign interest and participation. Open Call http://artksp.be/TEXTILEART.html
GradWatch Showcase-Creative Review of Graduate Work
Annual showcase of the best work from those finishing off an undergraduate course in the arts through Creative Scotland. Submission through email@example.com with a summary explaining what area of creativity is currently engaged in accompanied with five examples of creative work. Information is required about the course, degree structure and the university recently graduated from. Information available from www.creativereview.co.uk
Postgraduate Study- Research
University for the Creative Arts-MA in Textiles https://www.uca.ac.uk/study/courses/ma-textiles/
The MA Textiles course, based at UCA Farnham, aims to develop individual research processes into textile art, culture, craft, and design, enabling the combination of experience of textiles practice with a personal project. Students are encouraged to challenge themself, to explore and transform their own work using new materials, processes, techniques, and ideas to emerge with a renewed sense of personal vision. This fresh perspective and sense of self aids career development as a freelance design professional, curator, gallery director or textile designer.
There are many benefits with links with established artists and designers drawn from a multi-national cohort. The team comprises eminent professors, visiting scholars, academics and associate lecturers, experienced practitioners, designer-makers, artists, and researchers who work in the industry, produce commissions, regularly exhibit, and are published internationally. The course programme includes opportunities to work on live projects with established galleries. The content of lectures and seminars focuses on professional practice, and there are high profile guest speakers from art, craft, industry, and design practices. UCA also curate their own Textile Collection, which provides the students with an on-site archive of historical and contemporary material objects to study within an internationally renowned Crafts Study Centre – UCA’s purpose-built museum, research centre and gallery dedicated to crafts. There is also a long list of alumni who have established their own practices as designer-makers, practice as textile artists, and work in education as academics and researchers.
Edinburgh College of Art-MFA in Textiles (University of Edinburgh) https://www.eca.ed.ac.uk/
The content of this course is specific to your programme specialism. The teaching and course work is based upon your specialist studios and workshops. The Virtual Learning Environment supports teaching and is used for delivery of projects that make up the content and structure of the course. On completion of this course, the student will be able to:
EXPLORE: Demonstrate independent initiative, substantial autonomy, and self-critical generation of innovative ideas
DEVELOP: Develop a critical and contextualised relationship between creative practice and theory reflecting a significant understanding of your discipline
SYNTHESISE: Evaluate and consolidate research within the production of realised projects with a critical understanding of the contexts of your discipline
University of Huddersfield MA Textiles https://courses.hud.ac.uk/full-time/postgraduate/textiles-ma
The aim of this course is to enable you to:
Develop innovative and imaginative approaches to materials, processes, and methodologies in textiles, and rigorously test these ideas against trends within current practice
Evidence advanced critical evaluation and development of traditional and advanced textile techniques in the innovation and creation of new product and concepts.
Experiment, expand and encourage progressive thinking in the sustainable practices for textiles to meet future industry opportunities and customer demands.
Systematically plan, negotiate, and implement a body of work underpinned by advanced practice and research in textiles and surface design.
Contribute to the principles and processes inherent in textiles and surface design and their intersection with commercial and creative industries.
This course aims to combine advanced creative, aesthetic, and technical design skills including a degree in a related subject (Textiles or Surface Design, Textile Crafts or Fashion), and to develop fresh approaches to subject design for fashion, interiors or exterior architectural surfaces, future materials, 3D textiles or surfaces, advancing weave, embroidery, knit, and print skills, or textile art approaches, to build your portfolio for textile or surface roles in industry in the future.
University of Hertfordshire MA Contemporary Textiles https://www.herts.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate-masters/contemporary-textiles
MA Contemporary Textiles is an award within the PG Art Programme at the School of Creative Arts. Within the postgraduate programme there is strong emphasis on professional practice and the real-world applications of art and design. Contemporary textiles have emerged as an innovative area of practice for artists, designers, and makers, testing the boundaries of more traditional areas of art practice. This course gives students the opportunity to explore areas such as textiles and new materials, textiles and performance, and the connections between contemporary textiles, fashion, and interior design. It provides students with an environment that encourages individuality and explores the breadth and diversity of contemporary textile practice. Students employ a wide range of traditional and innovative methods and techniques and through research and experimentation, build on skills already established to develop the personal identity of their practice.
The aim of the postgraduate programme is to equip the student with the skills, knowledge and understanding required to practice at an advanced level, to foster creativity and enhance employment opportunities. Students will work alongside artists and designers who are involved with a wide variety of media and forms. Recent practitioners in contemporary textiles have explored performance-based work and film and lens-based media, combined textiles with digital media, which encouraged the questioning of conventions and challenged the boundaries of contemporary textile practice. The staff are experienced in research and professional practice, and there are many visiting artists, makers, curators who contribute to the course and there is involvement with the international exhibitions programme.
Graduate Exhibitions 2021- See online blog entry https://weaveprint.com/2021/07/04/online-virtual-and-live-degree-shows-2021-review-of-preferred-art-shows-and-collections/
Glasgow School of Art (GSA) Showcase- School of Fine Art, Painting and Printmaking
Lok Ching Wong Glasgow School of Art- BA (Hons) Fine Art, Painting and Printmaking
Lock Ching Wong noted the increase in suicide rates has been a global issue in more recent years. Civilization thrives on a modern future, but in doing so it also promotes disenfranchised sections of society, to increasingly marginalise to the detriment of many people. The consequence then can be severe for many already on the fringes of society struggling to cope, of people being more disconnected and mentally isolated. However, suicide is defined in some cultures as a selfish, socially unfavourable crime, and they believe that those that commit suicide are not worthy of sympathy and respect. It is even more ironic that today’s suicidal behaviour has become an entertainment live show on social platforms. In this pathological society, what right does anyone have to define them as sinners? When the people around you watch and ridicule the dying struggle, who is the real sinner? There is no absolute in the world. A madman is not an absolute bad person, and a practitioner is not an absolute saint. We are all lunatics, all mental patients, but the degree of “illness” is different.
Under the prevalence of individualism, this work hopes to not only offer visual pleasure but also to arouse the audience’s reflection on the theme and care for the people around them. I was struck with my own context and related themes concerning mental stress, distress, crisis and the need for increased connection and support for repair and recovery, to make known the most unspeakable, to be heard, to heal and reconnect.
As I have worked through Assignment Two, more solid decisions about the progression of my work, the audience for it and how I will communicate and exhibit it, have been reviewed and reflected upon to aid further connections and understandings about the way ahead.